Airborne dust: This is one of the most serious hazards associated with blasting operations. When evaluating this hazard, it's important to consider the concentration of dust and the size of particles. Larger particles, considered "nuisance" dust, are normally filtered out in the nose and throat. Smaller particles (10 microns or smaller) can bypass the lung's filtering system and penetrate deep into the respiratory system, where they may cause serious damage. Safeguards are needed when smaller particles are present in the working environment.
OsO 4 is a widely used staining agent used in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to provide contrast to the image.  As a lipid stain, it is also useful in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as an alternative to sputter coating . It embeds a heavy metal directly into cell membranes, creating a high electron scattering rate without the need for coating the membrane with a layer of metal, which can obscure details of the cell membrane. In the staining of the plasma membrane , osmium(VIII) oxide binds phospholipid head regions, thus creating contrast with the neighbouring protoplasm (cytoplasm). Additionally, osmium(VIII) oxide is also used for fixing biological samples in conjunction with HgCl 2 . Its rapid killing abilities are used to quickly kill live specimens such as protozoa. OsO 4 stabilizes many proteins by transforming them into gels without destroying structural features. Tissue proteins that are stabilized by OsO 4 are not coagulated by alcohols during dehydration.  Osmium(VIII) oxide is also used as a stain for lipids in optical microscopy.  OsO 4 also stains the human cornea (see safety considerations ).