When D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson’s On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.
AB - Unlike animal steroids, which rely on intracellular steroid receptors to directly alter gene activities, plant steroids use transmembrane receptor kinases to initiate a phosphorylation-mediated signaling cascade to convey their signals into the nucleus. Recent studies have begun to unravel the biochemical details of individual steps of the brassinosteroid signal transduction pathway, including ligand binding and receptor dimerization at the cell surface, signal transmission across the cell membrane, the phosphorylation of cellular targets in the cytosol, and gene regulation inside the nucleus.